When the Duke University basketball star Zion Williamson injured his knee in a freak accident in a game on Wednesday, it reignited a debate over whether student-athletes competing as amateurs on college campuses should instead become paid professionals. If Williamson and other elite players like him are going to risk their professional futures by playing college sports, many wonder, shouldn’t they be financially compensated?
Paying student-athletes might sound like a fairer way to treat students who generate so much money and attention for their colleges (not to mention the television networks that broadcast their games). But paying athletes would distort the economics of college sports in a way that would hurt the broader community of student-athletes, universities, fans and alumni. A handful of big sports programs would pay top dollar for a select few athletes, while almost every other college would get caught up in a bidding war it couldn’t afford.
The 30 largest universities in the country each routinely generate annual revenues exceeding 0 million from sports, but according to the National Collegiate Athletic Association, most of those revenues are spent covering operating expenses for the school’s athletic programs and paying tuition for their student-athletes. The majority of Division I colleges in the N.C.A.A. operate at a loss. In fact, among the roughly 350 athletic departments in the N.C.A.A.’s Division I, only about 24 schools have generated more revenue than expenses in recent years. The nation’s top five conferences made over billion in 2015, billions more than all other schools combined, according to an ESPN analysis of N.C.A.A. data.
For the have-not universities, however, to continue operating means relying on millions of dollars in debt, funding from their main campus and student fees. Even with that help, some of the major athletic departments are struggling. A recent N.C.A.A. study determined that only about 20 of the 1,000 or so college sports programs in the nation were profitable. What is going to happen when the competition to offer students money is supercharged?
A federal judge in Northern California, Claudia Wilken, will soon decide if student-athletes should instead be paid more like professionals. At the moment, thanks in part to the pressure exerted by a 2015 ruling by Judge Wilken, top N.C.A.A. athletes can receive scholarships totaling tens of thousands of dollars for tuition, room, board and stipends, as well as cost-of-attendance compensation. But the association still sets a ceiling on those benefits, and a group of Division I basketball and football players is awaiting Judge Wilken’s ruling on whether that ceiling should effectively be lifted.
If the plaintiffs in this case are successful, the arms race for top athletes may have no limit. The top 25 or so schools will pay because they can afford to. The remaining 325 or so will be forced to make a decision: not pay their athletes (and risk losing top talent to schools that do) or find a way to pay.
We have already had a preview of what happens when schools are put in this position. In August 2015, after the N.C.A.A. began allowing Division I universities to adopt “cost of attendance” stipends, North Dakota State University announced that it would offer such stipends in 16 sports, resulting in a new 0,000 annual expense to be paid by the athletic department. The school’s rival, the University of North Dakota, followed suit six days later. What happened? The University of North Dakota cut five teams over the next two years to help pay for the added expense.
The University of Wyoming, too, announced that it would offer stipends to its student-athletes in 2015, resulting in a new expected annual cost of 0,000 to the athletic department. A year later, calls were being made for a reduction in the athletic department because of budgetary concerns. (Those cuts almost certainly would have been made, had it not been for a million subsidy from the state government.)
Gene Smith, the athletic director at Ohio State University, has said that if the N.C.A.A. pay ceiling were lifted and he were pushed to pay basketball and football student-athletes more than their full-ride scholarship packages, he would not expect to maintain the same number of sports. The chancellor at the University of Wisconsin, Rebecca Blank, has also said that her school would consider cutting sports programs altogether.
Forcing the N.C.A.A. to pay student-athletes would undermine opportunities for the vast majority of them. It would create a winner-take-all system in which only a handful of top recruits would get a paycheck on top of earning a diploma debt-free.
Similar problems would arise in the case of so-called third-party payments, in which student-athletes could be paid for things like endorsements. Major brands like Nike would pay top football and basketball talent at the biggest schools, while student-athletes in other sports or at smaller programs would be ignored. Currently, corporate funds go to athletic departments and are generally distributed among all sports; with third-party payments, those funds could instead mostly go directly to a few student-athletes, starving the rest.
I am not opposed to young athletes who decide they would prefer to be paid cash to play sports. For those who think that a free education is insufficient as compensation for playing sports, there are other options: The National Basketball Association’s developmental league, for instance, offers 5,000 contracts to top high-school talent. Such athletes can also pursue a career playing for other domestic or overseas professional leagues.
Millions of student-athletes devote their sweat, blood and tears to sports. Some play football and basketball; others swim, run cross-country, play soccer or compete as gymnasts. Only a fraction of them generate money for their schools. We must ensure that the N.C.A.A. is able to preserve its commitment to all of them.
Cody J. McDavis is a student at the U.C.L.A. School of Law who played basketball for the University of Northern Colorado from 2012 to 2015.
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【金】【树】【医】【院】，【是】【帝】【都】【医】【院】【的】【附】【属】【医】【院】，【有】【很】【大】【的】【住】【院】【部】。 【医】【院】【里】，【种】【植】【着】【一】【片】【银】【杏】【树】【林】。【据】【说】【最】【老】【的】【那】【棵】，【树】【龄】【将】【近】【百】【岁】。【它】【巨】【大】【的】【树】【冠】【延】【绵】【伸】【展】，【枝】【繁】【叶】【茂】。【树】【下】【还】【有】【玉】【白】【的】【石】【凳】【石】【桌】，【时】【常】【有】【人】【休】【憩】【或】【者】【闭】【目】【养】【神】，【享】【受】【一】【隅】【宁】【静】【之】【美】。 【靠】【近】【地】【面】【的】【枝】【条】【上】，【还】【被】【痊】【愈】【的】【病】【患】【家】【属】【们】，【拴】【上】【了】【长】【长】【短】【短】【的】【平】【安】
【自】【梦】【境】【之】【内】，【乔】【洛】【时】【不】【时】【的】【问】【些】【问】【题】，【但】【都】【没】【有】【得】【到】【什】【么】【自】【己】【满】【意】【的】【答】【案】。 【梦】【境】【的】【环】【境】，【自】【己】【已】【经】【慢】【慢】【适】【应】，【所】【以】，【便】【很】【随】【意】【的】【坐】【下】。 【从】【影】【子】【口】【中】【得】【知】【答】【案】，【自】【己】【要】【进】【入】【天】【陆】【学】【院】，【进】【去】【拿】【一】【把】【钥】【匙】，【那】【么】，【琳】【琅】【阁】，【自】【己】【还】【去】【么】？ 【去】！ 【乔】【洛】【很】【快】【就】【做】【出】【了】【决】【定】，【因】【为】，【影】【子】【只】【是】【说】【去】【去】【天】【陆】【学】【院】【拿】【钥】天下精英4肖克黑庄网【剑】【星】：【集】【世】【界】【之】【力】【经】【一】【元】（【注】1）【之】【数】【练】【成】【的】【杀】【伐】【重】【宝】。（【具】【体】【故】【事】【请】【看】【正】【文】【六】【百】【三】【十】【九】【章】） 【数】【量】：【六】（【剑】【典】【所】【掌】【的】【三】【颗】，【是】【第】【二】，【第】【三】，【第】【四】。【第】【一】、【第】【五】、【第】【六】【剑】【星】【在】【星】【光】【女】【王】【施】【放】【引】【力】【武】【器】【后】【脱】【离】【不】【知】【所】【踪】） 【主】【角】【所】【在】【第】【四】【剑】【星】：【直】【径】80【公】【里】。 【动】【力】：【灵】【气】。 【移】【动】：【内】【部】【就】【挪】【移】【阵】【进】【行】【移】【动】；
【宠】【物】【医】【院】【的】【后】【方】【是】【一】【片】【荒】【地】，【他】【们】【狂】【奔】【过】【去】【后】，【发】【现】【私】【人】【飞】【机】【已】【经】【发】【动】，【狂】【风】【骤】【起】，【噪】【音】【响】【得】【让】【人】【耳】【膜】【生】【痛】。 “【不】【好】！【要】【起】【飞】【了】！”【宁】【琅】【惊】【呼】。 【盛】【璿】【大】【声】：“【你】【待】【着】，【别】【靠】【近】！” 【接】【着】，【他】【疾】【驰】【跑】【过】【去】，【弯】【腰】【从】【地】【上】【捡】【起】【一】【块】【石】【头】，【狠】【狠】【往】【驾】【驶】【室】【砸】【去】！ “【嘭】！”【驾】【驶】【室】【并】【没】【受】【影】【响】。 【他】【再】【次】【捡】【起】
【绝】【世】【轮】【魔】【说】【道】：“【李】【盟】【主】【聪】【明】【绝】【顶】，【难】【道】【还】【猜】【不】【到】【我】【找】【你】【的】【原】【因】？” 【闻】【言】，【沈】【云】【娘】【心】【不】【由】【得】【提】【了】【起】【来】，【这】【绝】【世】【轮】【魔】【老】【奸】【巨】【猾】【的】【很】【啊】，【把】【问】【题】【扔】【给】【了】【她】，【若】【是】【有】【任】【何】【一】【个】【地】【方】【回】【答】【不】【对】，【都】【会】【被】【他】【察】【觉】。 “【呵】【呵】，【绝】【世】【轮】【魔】【阁】【下】【这】【是】【在】【考】【我】【吗】？”【沈】【云】【娘】【冷】【笑】【了】【声】，【说】【道】：“【眼】【下】【的】【局】【面】【你】【找】【我】，【无】【非】【是】【想】【谈】【一】【谈】
【腊】【月】【二】【十】【九】【的】【这】【天】【早】【上】，【天】【还】【没】【有】【亮】，【苏】【尘】【便】【匆】【匆】【爬】【了】【起】【来】，【也】【顾】【不】【得】【冷】，【穿】【了】【新】【衣】【服】，【一】【蹦】【一】【跳】【的】【去】【了】【萧】【洛】【的】【房】【里】。 【此】【时】【的】【萧】【洛】【还】【窝】【在】【炕】【上】，【因】【着】【前】【些】【日】【子】【出】【门】【冷】【着】【了】，【此】【时】【还】【有】【些】【不】【适】，【想】【着】【年】【前】【的】【活】【计】【也】【做】【的】【差】【不】【多】【了】，【今】【日】【能】【多】【睡】【一】【会】【儿】。 【没】【成】【想】【苏】【尘】【会】【一】【大】【早】【上】【的】【就】【过】【来】，【着】【实】【让】【还】【在】【睡】【梦】【中】【的】【萧】【洛】